Polyurethane coatings are becoming increasingly popular, particularly due to their numerous beneficial properties. They are resistant to environmental weather conditions and other impacts associated with operation and time, including mechanical loads. The article is an introduction to investigations on the use of such paints in aircraft constructions to protect aircraft coatings. It presents the subject of polyurethane paints and their main types. It also describes what actions should be taken before starting the coating process, mainly the polyurethane one, also including many other types of coatings. Apart from the characteristics of surface cleaning methods, the authors list the types of impurities and the main types of surfaces on which coatings are applied. The selected areas of industry, in which polyurethane coatings are used, have also been presented. A very important feature of coatings is their adhesion to applied surfaces. This feature has also been analysed, describing the main methods of checking adhesion. The basic mechanical and thermo-physical properties of the coating as a cast material are determined in the experimental studies. A polyurethane coating, commercially known as Rangers 2K, has been used for the research.